Introduction. The enormous number of Orchidaceae species allows it divided into five subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae (Fig. The family Orchidaceae divided into (3) Subfamily such as Apostasoideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae by Schlechter, just divided (2) Subfamily such as Diandrae and Monandreae by Dressler [2] classified into (6) Subfamilies namely Apostasioideae,Cypripedioideae, Spiranthoideae, Orchidoideae, Epidendroideae and Vandoideae. 1–3. —1. But their single, incumbent anther and poorly organised pollinia led to their recognition as at best a subgroup of monandrous orchids. Our results also suggest that stem lineages of all five orchid subfamilies were present early in the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae,beforetheendoftheCretaceous,,65Myrago(Fig.4). Cypripedioideae (Cypri-pedium yunnanense). A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape. Some even say the number of species is above 35000. The Orchidaceae, commonly referred to as the orchid family, is a morphologically diverse and widespread family of monocots in the order Asparagales.Along with the Asteraceae, it is one of the two largest families of flowering plants, with between 21,950 and 26,049 currently accepted species, found in 880 genera. Although our sampling is much more limited that that of Cheadle (1942), we have attempted to sample Orchidaceae so as to represent the subfamilies Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae, based on 1 Manuscript received 11 November 2005; revision accepted 10 April 2006. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) demonstrates one of the most specialized lines of flowering plant evolution. Comment: The subfamilies of the Orchidaceae are defined by the nature of the organs (anthers and pollinia) containing the pollen. These analyses divide the family into five primary monophyletic clades: apostasioid, cypripedioid, vanilloid, orchidoid, and epidendroid orchids, arranged in that order. They have varied range of habits, habitats, morphology etc. of Orchidaceae are presented here. cons. Development of anthers in three subfamilies of Orchidaceae was studied anatomically to examine homology hypotheses for pollinium number characters and to produce a model of pollinium development for the family. Pl. The extant lineages of the two largest orchid subfamily clades It is likely that all orchids derived from Hypoxis -like ancestors (Hypoxidaceae, Fig. As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. Orchidaceae within the order Orchidales (13, 14). Pollen not cohering, mealy or paste- like, not united in pollinia == 2 1b. that crown Orchidaceae shared a common ancestor 7664to 8364Myrago. Worldwide: 788 genera and 18,500 species, cosmopolitan. The second clade Vanilloideae, including Vanilleae and Pogonieae (98), is sister to the remaining three subfamilies (98). Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants; the Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. ORCHIDACEAE Juss., Gen. The orchids are a large family of flowering plants, the Orchidaceae.They are herbaceous monocots.. ... was a key innovation in the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae, and may have played a role in promoting the tremendous radiation of orchids 10. ); Adanson, Fam. Orchidaceae are organized into five subfamilies, the two largest of which (Epidendroideae and Orchidoideae) are further divided into 19 tribes and 43 subtribes. However, orchids rapidly diverged and evolved into five subfamilies through gene family expansions and contractions, producing high diversity and adapting rapidly to the new ecosystems. Orchidoideae (Ponerorchis chusua). Many orchids are economic plants such as Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, and Vanilla. Whole chloroplast genome alignment of 23 orchid species representing four subfamilies, Cypripedioideae, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae and Vanilloideae, in the family Orchidaceae. It is an important issue to understand the origin and evolution of orchids in plant research. —2. They show a wide diversity of 70% epiphytic, 25% terrestrial, and 5% on various supports of vegetative growth and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth [22]. Five subfamilies have been recognized within the Orchidaceae, namely Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae (Chase et al. Such a guide line, however, is wanting in Vermeulen's presentation. other Orchidaceae (100). 25,000 species (some estimates as high as 30,000 species): worldwide, except for Antarctica, most numerous in the humid tropics and subtropics; 194 genera (11 endemic, one introduced) and 1,388 species (491 endemic, one introduced) in five subfamilies in China. Apostasioideae (Apostasia wallichii). 34 35 All data have been deposited in Bioproject (XXXXXXX) and SRA (XXXXXXX). 1. enormous cosmopolitan family of perennial terrestrial or epiphytic plants with fleshy tubers or rootstocks and unusual flowers 2. The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.. Orchidaceae. Orchidoideae. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the five orchid subfamilies remain unresolved. Indeed it makes no difference whether or not we recognize five subfamilies or five distinct families so long as the principles that must govern such steps do not become subservient to arbitrary decisions. About 800 genera and ca. Fig. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 6 1, 79 pages, 94 figures, 4 plates, 1986.-The Orchidaceae is the largest flowering plant family, with approximately 25,000 species. forms one of the largest family of flowering plants on earth with over 26000 species. Sixty-eight apomorphies grouped into forty-two transformation series were used to construct a cladogram for the twenty-six tribes of the family. Molecular clock analysis based on the whole plastome sequences suggested that Orchidaceae diverged from its sister family 99.2 mya, and the estimated divergence times of five subfamilies are as follows: Apostasioideae (79.91 mya), Vanilloideae (69.84 mya), Cypripedioideae (64.97 mya), Orchidoideae (59.16 mya), and Epidendroideae (59.16 mya). 2003, Chase et al. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about Pinaceae phylogeny. 1). Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms. Introduction. They make up between 6–11% of all seed plants.Orchids can be found in almost every country in the world except for Antarctica.. People have grown orchids for a 5 number of years. The Orchidaceae comprise five subfamilies, including Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, Vanilloideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. : 64, 1789 (nom. In order to broadly increase our scope of Orchidaceae genetic information, we updated the OrchidBase to version 2.0 which has 1,562,071 newly added floral non-redundant transcribed sequences (unigenes) collected comprehensively from 10 orchid species across five subfamilies of Orchidaceae. The Apostasioideae are a small subfamily of orchids that includes only two genera (Apostasia and Neuwiedia2,5), consisting of terres-trial species confined to the humid areas of southeast Asia, Japan, and northern Australia 6. Orchidaceae (orchids) is the largest family in the monocots, including about 25,000 species in 880 genera and five subfamilies. Orchidaceae. ORCHIDACEAE 兰科 lan ke Chen Xinqi (陈心启 Chen Sing-chi)1, Liu ... one introduced) and 1,388 species (491 endemic, one introduced) in five subfamilies in China. Lindley (1836) and even Garay (1986) used to treat it as a separate family Vanillaceae. These clades, with the exception of the vanilloids, essentially correspond to currently recognized subfamilies. Many orchids are highly valued for their beautiful and long-lasting flowers. The fourth clade contains the majority of terrestrial monandrous orchids that are morphologically assigned to 27. hyperdiverse tribe Cymbidieae and within the Orchidoideae subfamily. Orchidaceae (n.). Orchidaceae is one of the largest families in the angiosperms and contains approximately 30 000 species in five subfamilies. Species of all subfamilies of the family Orchidaceae occur in New Guinea: Apostasioideae Cypripedioideae Epidendroideae Orchidoideae Vanilloideae ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES OF THE FAMILY ORCHIDACEAE IN NEW GUINEA 1a. Whereas some of these groups are relatively small in terms of total species numbers, and may be of … In plant systematics Apostasioideae is one of the five subfamilies recognised within the orchid family, Orchidaceae.Only two genera, Neuwiedia and Apostasia, and 15 species, are recognised within the Apostasioideae in contrast to the other orchid subfamilies which are highly species rich.. Examples of plants in the subfamilies of the Orchidaceae. Especially, they are known for Orchidaceae subfamilies and tribes, yet phylogenetic relationships remain unclear within the . Adaptation to pollination by specific insect pollinators is what characterizes the family. Orchidaceae is a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and often fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants.Orchidaceae has about 27,800 currently accepted species, distributed in about 880 genera. 28. knowledge-gaps by focusing taxon sampling on the Cymbidieae subtribes Stanhopeinae, 29. ORCHIDACEAE 6 Figure 3. Clifford & Smith [8] proposed the first methodology to analyze the testa morphology studying … 2015). Beer [7] published the first study about the seed morphology in Orchidaceae. —3. Here we address these . There are between 22,000 and 26,000 species in 880 genera. In his book, the figures show the great diversity in genera belonging to different subfamilies. The major dispute centers on whether the 36 ABSTRACT37 [291 words] 38 Recent phylogenomic analyses based on the maternally inherited plastid organelle have 39 enlightened evolutionary relationships between the subfamilies of Orchidaceae and most of the tribes.40 However, uncertainty remains within several subtribes and genera for which phylogenetic The third clade Cypripedioi-deae, including two genera (100), shows moderate support (63). 2: Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the family Orchidaceae, reconstructed based on whole chloroplast genomesA. Orchidaceae is one of the most flourishing flowering plants and contains about 736 known genera and 28,000 species worldwide (Christenhusz and Byng, 2016).Recent studies recognize five subfamilies within Orchidaceae (Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae) as a monophyletic group (Chase et al., 2015). Des Plantes 2: 68, July – Aug. 1763.. Orchidaceae Juss. 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